Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.4322/polimeros.2013.010
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Divulgation Article

Degradação de Membrana Impermeabilizante de Polietileno de Alta Densidade Usada em Tanques de Armazenamento de Vinhaça

Degradation of Impermeable Membrane from High-Density Polyethylene Used in Vinasse Storage Tanks

Lavoie, Fernando Luiz; Bueno, Benedito S.; Lodi, Paulo C.

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Resumo

Membranas impermeabilizantes de polietileno de alta densidade (PEAD) são utilizadas como revestimento em tanques de armazenamento de vinhaça (resíduo da cana-de-açúcar), onde esse resíduo é lançado a temperaturas médias de 80-90 °C. Devido a essas temperaturas elevadas e à acidez do resíduo, essas membranas podem degradar, fissurar e perder a função para a qual foram projetadas vindo a contaminar o solo e o lençol freático. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito da vinhaça em membranas de PEAD após 4 meses de exposição em ambiente controlado. De forma complementar, utilizou-se também um líquido agressivo de pH básico (soda cáustica). Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência da membrana em contato com esses resíduos (ácido e básico). Foram avaliadas as propriedades físicas, mecânicas, teor de negro de fumo e análise termogravimétrica (TGA) para quantificar a degradação das membranas poliméricas frente aos resíduos químicos utilizados. Os resultados mostram, por exemplo, que enquanto a soda cáustica provocou pequena variação nas propriedades físicas, a vinhaça alterou a espessura do material em 7,8%. Analisando-se a imersão na vinhaça, verificou-se uma diminuição média na resistência e deformabilidade (escoamento) de 34% e 23,5%, respectivamente. Houve um aumento médio na rigidez de 7,8% e uma pequena diminuição na resistência média ao rasgo (2,7%).

Palavras-chave

Membrana de PEAD, propriedades físicas e mecânicas, negro de fumo, análise térmica (TGA).

Abstract

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) water-proof membranes are used as coatings in vinasse (leachate from sugar cane) storage tanks. The leachate is pumped into the tanks at temperatures of 80-90 °C. Due to these high temperatures and acidity of the waste, these membranes can be degraded, cracked and then loose the function for which they have been designed. This may cause contamination of the soil and groundwater. This study evaluated the effect of vinasse in HDPE membranes after 4 months of exposure in a controlled environment. An aggressive, alkaline pH liquid (sodium hydroxide) was also used. The objective was to evaluate the membrane resistance in contact with acidic and alkaline residues. Physical and mechanical tests, measurement of the carbon black content and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to determine degradation of polymer membranes after chemical immersion. While sodium hydroxide resulted caused only minor changes in the physical properties, vinasse induced a thickness change of 7.8%. With immersion in vinasse, an average decrease in strength and deformability (yield) of 34% and 23.5% were measured, respectively. The stiffness increased by 7.8% (average) and the tear strength decreased by 2.7% (average).

Keywords

HDPE membranes, physical and mechanical properties, carbon black, thermal analysis (TGA)

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