Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Scientific & Technical Article

Sulfonation and Characterization of Styrene-Indene Copolymers for the Development of Proton Conducting Polymer Membranes

Becker, Cristiane; Biagini, Amanda B.; Forte, Maria M. C.; Amico, Sandro C.; Vargas, José V. C.; Azambuja, Denise S.

Downloads: 0
Views: 213


The aim of this work is to obtain polymer precursors based on styrene copolymers with distinct degrees of sulfonation, as an alternative material for fuel cell membranes. Acetyl sulfate was used to carry out the sulfonation and the performance of the polyelectrolyte was evaluated based on the content of acid polar groups incorporated into the macromolecular chain. Polymeric films were produced by blending the sulfonated styrene-indene copolymer with poly(vinylidene fluoride). The degree of sulfonation of the polymer was strongly affected by the sulfonation reaction parameters, with a direct impact on the ionic exchange capacity and the ionic conductivity of the sulfonated polymers and the membranes obtained from them. The films produced with the blends showed more suitable mechanical properties, although the conductivity of the membranes was still lower than that of commercially available membranes used in fuel cells.


Styrene-indene, fuel cells, sulfonation, blends


1. Carretta, N.; Tricoli, V. & Picchioni, F. - J. Membr. Sci., 166, p.189 (2000). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-7388(99)00258-6

2. Mikhailenko, S. D.; Zaidi, S. M. J. & Kaliaguine, S. - Catal. Today, 67, p.225 (2001). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-5861(01)00290-5

3. Elabd, Y. A. & Napadensky, E. - Polymer, 45, p.3037 (2004). http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2004.02.061

4. Sangeetha, D. - Eur. Pol. J., 41, p.2644 (2005). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2005.03.018

5. Perles, C. E. - Polímeros, 18, p.281 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/ S0104-14282008000400005

6. Kreuer, K. D. - J. Membr. Sci., 185, p.29 (2004). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0376-7388(00)00632-3

7. Savadogo, O. - J. Power Sources, 127, p.135 (2004). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2003.09.043

8. Guan, R.; Zou, H.; Lu, D.; Gong, C. & Liu, Y. - Eur. Pol. J., 41, p.1554 (2005). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2005.01.018

9. Kucera, F. & Jancar, J. - Polym. Eng. Sci., 38, p.783 (1998). http:// dx.doi.org/10.1002/pen.10244

10. Makowski, H. S. & Lundberg, R. D. U.S. - “Flexible polymeric compositions comprising a normally plastic polymer sulfonated to about 0.2 to about 10 mole% sulfonate”, Patent nº 3.870.841 (1975).

11. Lehtinen, T.; Sundholm, G.; Holmberg, S.; Sundholm, F.; Björnbom, P. & Bursell, M. - Electrochim Acta, 43, p.1881 (1998). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0013-4686(97)10005-6

12. Mokrini, A.; Huneault, M. A. & Gerard, P. - J. Membr. Sci., 283, p.74

13. Bae, B. & Kim, D. - J. Membr. Sci., 220, p.75 (2003). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0376-7388(03)00216-3

14. Nagarale, R. K.; Gohil, G. S. & Shahi, V. K. - J. Membr. Sci., 280, p.389 (2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.01.043

15. Becker, C. M. - “Obtaining and Characterization of sulfonated proton conducting styrene copolymers for development of polymer membranes”, M.Sc. Dissertation, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2007).

16. Rudge, A.; Davey, J.; Raistrick, I.; Gottesfeld, S. & Ferraris, J. P. - J. Power Sources, 47, p.89 (1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-7753(94)80053-7

17. Celso, F.; Mauler, R. S. & Gomes, A. S. - Polímeros, 18, p.178 (2008). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-14282008000200016

18. Flint, S. D. & Slade, R. C. T. - Solid State Ion., 97, p.299 (1997). http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2738(97)00037-4

19. Erbil, C.; Kazancioglu, E. & Uyanik, N. - Eur. Pol. J., 40, p.1145 (2004). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2003.12.024

20. Liu, Y.-C. - Mat. Chem. Phys., 77, p.791 (2002). http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/S0254-0584(02)00168-2

21. Slade, S.; Campbell, S. A.; Ralph T. R.; Walsh F. C. - J. Electrochem. Soc., 149, p. 1556 (2002). http://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1.1517281(2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2006.06.032
588371817f8c9d0a0c8b4921 polimeros Articles
Links & Downloads

Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia

Share this page
Page Sections