Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.2087
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Scientific & Technical Article

Otimização do processo de dispersão de nanotubos de carbono em poliuretano termorrígido

Optimization of carbon nanotubes dispersion process in thermoset polyurethane

Lopes, Magnovaldo Carvalho; Trigueiro, João Paulo Campos; Castro, Vinicius Gomide de; Lavall, Rodrigo Lassarote; Silva, Glaura Goulart

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Resumo

Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um processo empregando misturador de alto cisalhamento e moinho de rolos para dispersar MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) puros e modificados em poliol visando a preparação de concentrados de 3% em massa. Condições otimizadas no trabalho permitiram a obtenção de suspensões com menor número e tamanho de agregados de MWCNTs. Compósitos contendo 0,5% em massa de MWCNTs foram preparados por diluição dos concentrados em poliol usando mistura mecânica seguida de cura. Resultados de microscopia indicaram que as melhores dispersões foram obtidas com os MWCNTs modificados, os quais permitiram um aumento na tensão na ruptura, no alongamento e uma melhor preservação da estabilidade térmica. Além disso, valores de condutividade elétrica sugerem que o compósito possa ser empregado para dissipação eletrostática. Dessa forma, os resultados obtidos demonstram que a modificação covalente da superfície dos MWCNTs e a utilização de estratégias eficientes de dispersão são essenciais para melhorar as propriedades finais dos nanocompósitos.

Palavras-chave

dispersão de nanotubos de carbono, nanotubos de carbono modificados, propriedades mecânicas, poliuretano termorrígido elastomérico.

Abstract

A process employing high shear mixer and roll mill to disperse pristine and modified MWCNTs (multiwalled carbon nanotubes) in polyol was developed in order to prepare 3 wt% masterbatches. The optimum process conditions resulted in suspensions with smaller number and size of nanotube aggregates. Composites containing 0.5 wt% of MWCNTs were prepared by dilution of polyol masterbatches by simple mechanical mixing followed by cure. Microscopy data revealed better dispersion of modified carbon nanotubes in the polymer matrix, which promoted an increase in the tensile strength, elongation and a better preservation of thermal stability. Furthermore, electric conductivity values indicated that the composites can be used for electrostatic dissipation. These results demonstrate that the covalent modification of MWCNTs surface and the use of efficient dispersion strategies are essential to improve nanocomposites’ final properties.

Keywords

carbon nanotubes dispersion, modified carbon nanotubes, thermoset polyurethane elastomer, mechanical properties.

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