Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.1987
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Review Article

Hidrogéis a base de ácido hialurônico e quitosana para engenharia de tecido cartilaginoso

Hyaluronic acid and chitosan based hydrogels for cartilage tissue engeneering

Nascimento, Mônica Helena Monteiro do; Lombello, Christiane Bertachini

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Resumo

A Engenharia de Tecidos envolve o desenvolvimento de novos materiais ou dispositivos capazes de interações específicas com os tecidos biológicos, buscando a utilização de materiais biocompatíveis que devem servir como arcabouço para o crescimento de células in vitro, organizando e desenvolvendo o tecido que posteriormente será implantado no paciente. Uma variedade de arcabouços como hidrogéis poliméricos, sintéticos e naturais, têm sido investigados para a expansão de condrócitos in vitro, visando o reparo da cartilagem lesionada. Um hidrogel de interesse particular na regeneração de cartilagem é o ácido hialurónico (AH). Trata-se de um biopolímero atraente para a fabricação de arcabouços artificiais para Engenharia de Tecidos por ser biocompatível e biodegradável. A biocompatibilidade do AH deve-se ao fato de estar presente na matriz extracelular nativa, deste modo, cria-se um ambiente propício que facilita a adesão, proliferação e diferenciação celular, além da existência de sinalização celular específica, o que contribui para a regeneração do tecido. O uso de hidrogel composto de ácido hialurónico e quitosana (QUI) também tem sido investigado em aplicações de Engenharia de Tecidos de cartilagem, com resultados promissores. Baseando-se nestas informações, o objetivo este trabalho foi investigar as alternativas disponíveis para regeneração tecidual da cartilagem e conhecer mais detalhadamente as relações entre células e biomateriais.

Palavras-chave

ácido hialurônico, biocompatibilidade, engenharia de tecidos, quitosana, cultura de células.

Abstract

Tissue Engineering involves the development of new materials or devices capable of specific interactions with biological tissues, searching the use of biocompatible materials as scaffolds for cell growth in vitro, organizing and developing tissue that is subsequently implanted into the patient. A variety of scaffolds such as polymeric hydrogels, natural and synthetic, have been investigated for the expansion of chondrocytes in vitro in order to repair the damaged cartilage. A hydrogel of particular interest in cartilage regeneration is hyaluronic acid (HA). HA are attractive biopolymers for manufacturing artificial scaffolds for Tissue Engineering, it is biocompatible and biodegradable. The biocompatibility of HA is due to the fact that it is present in native extracellular matrix, thus creates an environment, which facilitates the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, in addition to the existence of specific cell signaling, which contributes to tissue regeneration. The use of hydrogel composed of hyaluronic acid and chitosan (CHI) has also been investigated for applications in Tissue Engineering of soft tissues, like cartilage, with promising results. Based on this information, this study aims to investigate the alternatives available for cartilage tissue regeneration and meet more detail the relationships between cells and biomaterials.

Keywords

hyaluronic acid, biocompatibility, tissue engineering, chitosan, cell culture.

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