Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.1868
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Scientific & Technical Article

Compósitos polímero-madeira preparados por polimerização in situ de metil metacrilato usando aditivos bifuncionais

Wood-polymer composites prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate using bi-functional additives

Mattos, Bruno Dufau; Missio, André Luiz; Cademartori, Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de; Gatto, Darci Alberto; Magalhães, Washington Luiz Esteves

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Resumo

O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a confecção de compósitos polímero-madeira por meio de polimerização in situ de metil metacrilato (MMA), utilizando ácido metacrílico (MAA) e glicidil metacrilato (GMA) como agentes de ligação e reticulação. Amostras de madeira de guapuruvu foram impregnadas em um sistema de vácuo e pressão e polimerizadas em estufa a 90°C por 10h, usando 1,5% de peroxido de benzoíla como catalisador. Os compósitos foram caracterizados por meio de testes de absorção de água e estabilidade dimensional, molhabilidade, ATR-IR, TGA, MEV e WPG. Os espectros de ATR-IR mostraram incrementos nas bandas a 1746, 1460, e 1145 cm–1, referentes as estruturas químicas dos polímeros dentro da madeira, confirmado posteriormente pelas imagens de MEV. A termogravimetria apontou reações químicas entre os copolímeros e a parede celular da madeira nos compósitos com GMA e MAA. Os compósitos preparados com MMA apresentaram incrementos acima de 50% nas propriedades higroscópicas e de estabilidade dimensional, entretanto a adição de GMA e MAA resultou em maiores incrementos nas mesmas propriedades, entre 66-90%.

Palavras-chave

polimerização por radicais livres, Schizolobium parahyba, catálise térmica, reticulantes, agentes de ligação.

Abstract

We prepared wood/polymer composites by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) using glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) as cross-linkers and coupling agents. The guapuruvu wood samples were impregnated in a vacuum/pressure system and polymerized at 90 °C for 10 h, using benzoyl peroxide at 1.5 wt % as catalyst. We characterized the composites through water uptake, dimensional stability tests, wettability, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, SEM, and WPG. ATR-FTIR spectra showed an increase of the peaks at 1746, 1460, and 1145 cm-1, corresponding to the chemical structures of the polymers into the pores and capillaries of the wood. This was further confirmed in the SEM images. TGA curves showed evidences for a chemical interaction between the copolymer and the wood cell wall in the composites with GMA and MAA. Hygroscopicity and dimensional stability properties of the composites prepared with MMA improved by 50%. Nevertheless, the addition of GMA and MAA resulted in additional increases for hydrophobicity and dimensional stability of the samples, ~ 66 – 90%.

Keywords

free-radical polymerization, Schizolobium parahyba, heat catalyst, cross-linkers, coupling agents.

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