Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.1761
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Scientific & Technical Article

Pirólise catalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a vermiculita modificada

Catalytic pyrolysis of LDPE using modified vermiculite as a catalyst

Bezerra, Franciel Aureliano; Figueiredo, Aneliése Lunguinho; Araujo, Antonio Souza de; Guedes, Ana Paula de Melo Alves

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Resumo

O polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD) é um dos polímeros mais usados atualmente, e a grande quantidade desse polímero produzida resulta em toneladas de resíduos, que necessitam ser tratados. Neste trabalho foi realizada a pirólise termocatalítica do PEBD usando como catalisador a argila vermiculita modificada, como alternativa para o tratamento dos resíduos. A argila foi tratada com solução de ácido nítrico a diferentes concentrações e calcinada a 400 °C. Os materiais foram caracterizados por técnicas de difratometria de raios X, termogravimetria, adsorção de nitrogênio e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. A pirólise térmica e termocatalítica foi realizada em um micro reator acoplado com GC/MS, a 500 °C. O intuito da pirólise de resíduos poliméricos é a obtenção de hidrocarbonetos leves (C<16), que possam ser empregados na indústria química e petroquímica, através de quebras na cadeia polimérica. Os resultados foram satisfatórios, com aumento no rendimento para hidrocarbonetos leves ao empregar os catalisadores chegando a 71,4% de produtos com C<16, enquanto a pirólise térmica resultou apenas de 25,8%.

Palavras-chave

vermiculita, argila, pirólise, PEBD.

Abstract

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is one of the most commonly-used polymers currently, and the great quantity of this polymer produced results in tons of waste that must be treated. We studied the thermocatalytic pyrolysis of LDPE with a modified clay vermiculite catalyst as an alternative for treatment of waste. The clay was treated with a solution of nitric acid at different concentrations and calcined at 400 °C. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, nitrogen adsorption, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Thermal and thermocatalytic pyrolysis were carried out in a microreactor coupled with GC/MS at 500 °C. The aim of the polymeric waste pyrolysis is the obtainment of light hydrocarbons (C<16), which can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry, through breaks in the polymer chain. The results were satisfactory, with an increase in yield for light hydrocarbons by using catalysts reaching up to 71.4% of products with C<16, whereas thermal pyrolysis resulted in only 25.8%.

Keywords

vermiculite, clay, pyrolysis, LDPE.

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