Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Scientific & Technical Article

Synthesis of graft copolymers of acrylamide for locust bean gum using microwave energy: swelling behavior, flocculation characteristics and acute toxicity study

Giri, Tapan Kumar; Pure, Sanjeet; Tripathi, Dulal Krishna

Downloads: 0
Views: 414


The graft copolymer of locust bean gum (LBG) and acrylamide has been synthesized by microwave assisted method using potassium persulphate (KPS) as an initiator in aqueous medium. Different reaction parameters such as time, initiator concentration, monomer concentration, polymer concentration, and microwave power were studied to get maximum graft copolymer. The grafted copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The graft copolymer exhibited pH switching on-off behavior depending on the pH of the external medium. Flocculation capacity of LBG and LBG-graft-polyacrylamide for both coking and non-coking coals has been studied. Results indicated that the graft copolymer exhibited good flocculation properties compared to native polymer. The graft copolymer was non-toxic in the acute toxicity study, since the acute single dose did not cause any toxic signs, or symptoms. All mice treated with the graft copolymer survived beyond the 14 days of observation period.


biopolymers, grafting reaction, microwave synthesis, flocculation, swelling.


1. Dea, I. C. M., & Morrison, A. (1975). Chemistry and Interactions of Seed Galactomannans. Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry, 31, 241-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2318(08)60298-X.

2. Fernandes, P. B., Goncalves, M. P., & Doublier, J. L. (1993). Influence of locust bean gum on the rheological properties of kappa-carrageenan systems in the vicinity of the gel point. Carbohydrate Polymers, 22(2), 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0144-8617(93)90072-C.

3. Glicksman, M. (1969). Gum technology in the food industry. New York: Academic Press.

4. Rojas-Argudo, C., del Rio, M. A., & Pérez-Gao, M. B. (2009). Development and optimization of locust bean gum (LBG)-based edible coatings for postharvest storage of ‘Fortune’ mandarins. Giri, T. K., Pure, S., & Tripathi, D. K. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 52(2), 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2008.11.005.

5. Vijayaraghavan, C., Vasanthakumar, S., & Ramakrishnan, A. (2008). In vitro and in vivo evaluation of locust bean gum and chitosan combination as a carrier for buccal drug delivery. Die Pharmazie, 63(5), 342-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2008.7139. PMid:18557416.

6. Maiti, S., Dey, P., Banik, A., Sa, B., Ray, S., & Kaity, S. (2010). Tailoring of locust bean gum and development of hydrogel beads for controlled oral delivery of glipizide. Drug Delivery, 17(5), 288-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717541003706265. PMid:20350054

7. Mohan, N., & Nair, P. D. (2005). Novel porous, polysaccharide scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Trends in Biomaterials and Artificial Organs, 18(2), 219-224. Retrieved from http://medind.nic.in/taa/t05/i2/taat05i2p219.pdf

8. Goni, I., Gurruchaga, M., Valero, M., & Guzman, G. M. (1983). Graft polymerization of acrylic monomers onto starch fractions. I. Effect of reaction time on grafting methyl methacrylate onto amylose. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, 21(8), 2573-2580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pol.1983.170210837.

9. Zohuriaan-Mehr, M. J. (2005). Advances in chitin and chitosan modification through graft copolymerization: a comprehensive review. Iranian Polymer Journal, 14(3), 235-265. Retrieved from http://journal.ippi.ac.ir/manuscripts/ipjE05140306.pdf

10. Kappe, C. O. (2004). Controlled microwave heating in modern organic synthesis. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43(46), 6250-6284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200400655. PMid:15558676

11. Prasad, K., Mehta, G., Meena, R., & Siddhanta, A. K. (2006). Hydrogel-forming agar-graft-PVP and κ-carrageenan-graftPVP blends: rapid synthesis and characterization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 102(4), 3654-3663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.24145.

12. Singh, V., Singh, S. K., & Maurya, S. (2010). Microwave induced poly(acrylic acid) modification of Cassia javanica seed gum for efficient Hg(II) removal from solution. Chemical Engineering Journal, 160(1), 129-137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2010.03.020.

13. Sen, G., Singh, R. P., & Pal, S. (2010). Microwave-initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted sodium alginate: Synthesis and characterization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 115(1), 63-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.30596.

14. Rani, P., Sen, G., Mishra, S., & Jha, U. (2012). Microwave assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted gum ghatti and its application as flocculant. Carbohydrate Polymers, 89(1), 275-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.03.009. PMid:24750634

15. Yadav, M., Sand, A., & Behari, K. (2012). Synthesis and properties of a water soluble graft (chitosan-g-2-acrylamidoglycolic acid) copolymer. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 50(5), 1306-1314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2012.03.010. PMid:22450052

16. Silva, D. A., Paula, R. C. M., & Feitosa, J. P. A. (2007). Graft copolymerisation of acrylamide onto cashew gum. European Polymer Journal, 43(6), 2620-2629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2007.03.041.

17. Pal, S., Nasim, T., Patra, A., Ghosh, S., & Panda, A. B. (2010). Microwave assisted synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted dextrin (Dxt-g-PAM): Development and application of a novel polymeric flocculant. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47(5), 623-631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2010.08.009. PMid:20728467

18. Kaith, B. S., Jindal, R., Jana, A. K., & Maiti, M. (2009). Characterization and evaluation of methyl methacrylate-acetylated Saccharum spontaneum L. graft copolymers prepared under microwave. Carbohydrate Polymers, 78(4), 987-996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2009.07.036.

19. Singh, A. V., Nath, L. K., & Guha, M. (2011). Microwave assisted synthesis and characterization of Phaseolus aconitifolius starch-g-acrylamide. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86(2), 872-876. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2011.05.029.

20. Shah, S. B., Patel, C. P., & Trivedi, H. C. (1994). Cericinduced grafting of ethyl-acrylate onto sodium alginate. Die Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie, 214(1), 75-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/apmc.1994.052140108.

21. Deshmukh, S. R., Chaturvedi, P. N., & Singh, R. P. (1985). The turbulent drag reduction by graft copolymers of guargum and polyacrylamide. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 30(10), 4013-4018. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.1985.070301005.

22. Sand, A., Yadav, M., Mishra, D. K., & Behari, K. (2010). Modification of alginate by grafting of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and studies of physicochemical properties in terms of swelling capacity, metal-ion uptake and flocculation. Carbohydrate Polymers, 80(4), 1147-1154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.036.

23. Gils, P. S., Ray, D., & Sahoo, P. K. (2009). Characteristics of xanthan gum-based biodegradable superporous hydrogel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 45(4), 364-371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2009.07.007. PMid:19643130

24. Tako, M., Qi, Z.-Q., Yoza, E., & Toyama, S. (1998). Synergistic interaction between κ-carrageenan isolated from Hypnea charoides Lamouroux and galactomannan on its gelation. Food Research International, 31(8), 543-548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(99)00022-8.
588371bd7f8c9d0a0c8b4a3f polimeros Articles
Links & Downloads

Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia

Share this page
Page Sections