Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Original Article

Investigating the surface performance of impregnated and varnished Calabrian pine wood against weathering

Türkay Türkoğlu; Ergün Baysal; Çağlar Altay; Hilmi Toker; Mustafa Küçüktüvek; Ahmet Gündüz

Downloads: 0
Views: 241


The study investigates the gloss and color changes values of Calabrian pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) wood impregnated with some copper content impregnation chemicals such as Celcure C4, Korasit KS, and Tanalith E 8000 and then water-based varnish (WBV) and polyurethane varnish (PV) coated after 6 months of weathering. The results of study showed that gloss values of PV coated Calabrian pine wood were higher than that of WBV coated Calabrian pine wood before weathering. The gloss values of all treatment groups decreased after weathering. Lightness values of Calabrian pine wood also decreased for all treatment groups after weathering. Pre-impregnation before PV coating resulted in lower 𝜟L* values of Calabrian pine wood. While all treatment groups tended to turn reddish by giving 𝜟a* positive values, they tended to turn bluish by giving negative 𝜟b* values. The lowest total color change was obtained with only WBV coated Calabrian pine wood.



impregnation, weathering, varnish, color and gloss test, Calabrian pine wood


1 Priadi, T., & Hiziroglu, S. (2013). Characterization of heat Treated wood species. Materials & Design, 49, 575-582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.12.067.

2 Obata, Y., Takeuchi, K., Furuta, Y., & Kanayama, K. (2005). Research on better use of wood for sustainable development: quantitative evaluation of good tactile warmth of wood. Energy, 30(8), 1317-1328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2004.02.001.

3 Woodard, A. C., & Milner, H. R. (2016). Sustainability of construction materials. United Kingdom: Woodhead Publishing.

4 Akbarian, M., Olya, M. E., Ataeefard, M., & Mahdavian, M. (2012). The Influence of NaNosilver on thermal and antibacterial properties of A 2K waterborne polyurethane coating. Progress in Organic Coatings, 75(4), 344-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.porgcoat.2012.07.017.

5 De Meijer, M. (2001). Review on the durability of exterior wood coatings with reduced VOC-content. Progress in Organic Coatings, 43(4), 217-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-9440(01)00170-9.

6 Hunt, R. (1995). Measuring color. United Kingdom: Ellis Horwood Limited.

7 Yalinkilic, M. K., Ilhan, R., Imamura, Y., Takahashi, M., Demirci, Z., Yalınkilic, A. C., & Peker, H. (1999). Weathering durability of CCB-impregnated wood for clear varnish coatings. Journal of Wood Science, 45(6), 502-514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00538961.

8 Kamdem, D. P., Pizzi, A., & Jermannaud, A. (2002). Durability of heat-treated wood. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 60(1), 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00107-001-0261-1.

9 Lebow, S. T. (2004). Alternatives to Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) for residential construction. In Environmental Impacts of Preservative-Treated Wood Conference (pp. 156-168). Orlando, FL, USA: The Florida Center for Environmental Solutions.

10 Barceloux, D. G., & Barceloux, D. (1999). Chromium. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology, 37(2), 173-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CLT-100102418. PMid:10382554.

11 Zhang, J., Kamdem, D. P., & Temiz, A. (2009). Weathering of copper-amine treated wood. Applied Surface Science, 256(3), 842-846. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.071.

12 Altay, C., Baysal, E., Toker, H., Türkoğlu, T., Küçüktüvek, M., Gündüz, A., & Peker, H. (2020). Effects of natural weathering on surface characterıstics of Scots pine impregnated with wolmanit CX-8 and varnished. Wood Research, 65(1), 87-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.37763/wr.1336-4561/65.1.087100.

13 American Society for Testing and Materials – ASTM. (2007). ASTM 1413-07e1: Standard Test Method For Wood Preservatives By Laboratory Soil-Block Cultures. West Conshohocken‎, PA, USA: ASTM International.

14 American Society for Testing and Materials – ASTM. (2017). ASTM D3023- 98: Standard practice for determination of resistance of factory-applied coatings on wood products to stains and reagents. West Conshohocken‎, PA, USA: ASTM International.

15 American Society for Testing and Materials – ASTM. (2018). ASTM D523-14: Standard test method for specular gloss. West Conshohocken‎, PA, USA: ASTM International.

16 American Society for Testing and Materials – ASTM. (1964). ASTM D1536-58 T: Tentative method of test color difference using the colormaster differential colourimeter. West Conshohocken‎, PA, USA: ASTM International.

17 American Society for Testing and Materials – ASTM. (1970). ASTM D358-55: Standard specification for wood to be used panels in weathering tests of paints and varnishes. West Conshohocken‎, PA, USA: ASTM International.

18 Baysal, E., Dizman Tomak, E., Ozbey, M., & Altin, E. (2014). Surface properties of impregnated and varnished Scots pine wood after accelerated weathering. Coloration Technology, 130(2), 140-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cote.12070.

19 Toker, H., Baysal, E., & Kesik, H. I. (2009). Surface characteristics of wood pre-impregnated with borates before varnish coating. Forest Products Journal, 59(7-8), 43-46.

20 Türkoğlu, T., Baysal, E., Kureli, I., Toker, H., & Ergün, M. E. (2015). The effects of natural weathering on hardness and gloss of impregnated and varnished Scots pine and oriental beech. Wood Research, 60(5), 833-844.

21 Pori, P., Vilčnik, A., Petrič, M., Sever Škapin, A., Mihelčič, M., Šurca Vuk, A., Novak, U., & Orel, B. (2016). Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea abies) Wood. Applied Surface Science, 372, 125-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.03.065.

22 Gündüz, A., Baysal, E., Türkoğlu, T., Küçüktüvek, M., Altay, C., Peker, H., & Toker, H. (2019). Accelerated weathering performance of Scots pine preimpregnated with copper based chemicals before varnish coating. Part II: coated with water based varnish. Wood Research, 64(6), 987-998. Retrieved in 2020, November 17, from http://www.woodresearch.sk/wr/201906/06.pdf

23 Gündüz, A., Baysal, E., Türkoğlu, T., Altay, C., Küçüktüvek, M., Toker, H., & Peker, H. (2020). Accelerated weathering performance of Scots pine preimpregnated with copper based chemicals before varnish coating. Part: I coated with cellulosic and polyurethane varnishes. Coloration Technology, 136(1), 34-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cote.12435.

24 Baysal, E., Degirmentepe, S., Toker, H., & Türkoğlu, T. (2014). Some mechanical and physical properties of AD-KD 5 impregnated and thermally modified Scots pine wood. Wood Research, 59(2), 283-296. Retrieved in 2020, November 17, from http://www.woodresearch.sk/wr/201402/07.pdf

25 Baysal, E. (2012). Surface characteristics of CCA treated Scots pine after accelerated weathering. Wood Research, 57(3), 375-382. Retrieved in 2020, November 17, from http://www.woodresearch.sk/wr/201203/04.pdf

26 Feist, W., & Hon, D. N.-S. (1984). Chemistry of weathering and protection. In R. Rowell (Eds.), The chemistry of solid wood (Chap. 11, pp. 401-451). USA: American Chemical Society. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ba-1984-0207.ch011.

27 Temiz, A., Yildiz, U. C., Aydin, I., Eikenes, M., Alfredsen, G., & Colakoglu, G. (2005). Surface roughness and color characteristics of wood treated with preservatives after accelerated weathering test. Applied Surface Science, 250(1-4), 35-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.12.019.

28 Ghosh, S. C., Militz, H., & Mai, C. (2009). Natural weathering of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) boards modified with functionalised commercial silicone emulsions. BioResources, 4, 659-673. http://dx.doi.org/10.15376/BIORES.4.2.659-673.

60881bcba95395477c58de83 polimeros Articles
Links & Downloads

Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia

Share this page
Page Sections