Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
https://revistapolimeros.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.07218
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Original Article

Influence of ZnO on the properties of elastomeric compositions and their leached extract

Torani, Daiane; Crespo, Janaina da Silva; Brandalise, Rosmary Nichele

Downloads: 0
Views: 40

Abstract

The reductionin zinc oxide (ZnO) content in elastomeric compositions has become a subject due to the deleterious effect of zinc ions on aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to develop elastomeric compositions containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 phr of ZnO aiming at assessing the influence of the different contents on the rheometric, mechanical and thermal properties. The release of the zinc (Zn) content by leaching, at each step of the production and after the ageing was also assessed. All ZnO-containing compounds had similar rheometric, thermal and mechanical properties. Also, during and after exposure to accelerated ageing the released contents were similar for all compositions regarding the residual ZnO percent. In conclusion, the utilization of the 3 phr ZnO content is viable for the replacement of the usual amount employed.

Keywords

leaching; properties; vulcanization activation; zinc oxide.

References

1 Pysklo, L., Pawlowski, P., Parasiewicz, W., & Piaskiewicz, M. (2006). Influence of the zinc oxide level in rubber compositions on the amount of zinc leaching. KGK - Kautschuk Gummi Kunstsoffe59(6), 328-331. Retrieved in 2019, September 6, from https://www.kgk-rubberpoint.de/forschung/influence-of-the-zinc-oxide-level-in-rubber-compositions-on-the-amount-of-zinc-leaching/ 

2 Heideman, G., Noordermeer, J. W. M., Datta, R. N., & van Baarle, B. (2006). Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compositions. Macromolecular Symposia, 245-246(1), 657-667. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/masy.200651393

3 Kadlcak, J., Kuritka, I., Konecny, P., & Cermak, R. (2011). The effect of ZnO modification on rubber compound properties. In Proceedings of the 4th WSEAS international conference on Energy and development - Environment – Biomedicine (pp. 347-352). Wisconsin, USA: World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society.

4 Heideman, G. (2004). Reduced zinc oxide levels in sulphur vulcanization of rubber compositions (Doctoral thesis). University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands. 

5 Helaly, F. M., El Sabbagh, S. H., El Kinawy, O. S., & El Sawy, S. M. (2011). Effect of synthesized zinc stearate on the properties of natural rubber vulcanizates in the absence and presence of some fillers. Materials & Design32(5), 2835-2843. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2010.12.038

6 Gualtieri, M., Andrioletti, M., Vismara, C., Milani, M., & Camatini, M. (2005). Toxicity of tire debris leachates. Environment International31(5), 723-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2005.02.001. PMid:15910969. 

7 Moresco, S., Giovanela, M., Carli, L. N., & Crespo, J. S. (2016). Development of passenger tire treads: reduction in zinc content and utilization of a bio-based lubricant. Journal of Cleaner Production117, 199-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.01.013.

8 Carli, L. N., Bianchi, O., Mauler, R. S., & Crespo, J. S. (2011). Crosslinking kinetics of SBR composites containing vulcanized ground scraps as filler. Polymer Bulletin67(8), 1621-1631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00289-011-0521-0

9 Khalaf, A. I., Yehia, A. A., Ismail, M. N., & El-Sabbagh, S. H. (2012). High performance oil resistant rubber. Open Journal of Organic Polymer Materials2(4), 88-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojopm.2012.24013.

10 Flory, P. J. (1953). Principles of polymer chemistry. New York: Cornel University. 

11 Coran, A. Y. (2013). Vulcanization. In: Mark, J. E., Erman, B., & Roland, M. The science of rubber compounding (pp. 337-338). Boston: Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394584-6.00007-8

12 Bilgili, E., Arastoopour, H., & Bernstein, B. (2011). Pulverization of rubber granulates using the solid state shear extrusion (SSSE) process: part I. Process concepts and characteristics. Powder Technology115(3), 265-276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-5910(00)00353-3

13 Movahed, S. O., Ansarifar, A., & Mirzaie, F. (2015). Effect of various efficient vulcanization cure systems on the compression set of a nitrile rubber filled with different fillers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science132(8), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.41512.

14 Joseph, A. M., George, B., Madhusoodanan, K. N., & Rosamma, A. (2015). Current status of sulphur vulcanization and devulcanization chemistry: process of vulcanization. Rubber Science28(1), 82-121. Retrieved in 2019, September 6, from htps://www.researchgate.net/publication/275519885 

15 Heideman, G., Datta, R. N., Noordermeer, J. W. M., & van Baarle, B. (2004). Activators in accelerated sulfur vulcanization. Rubber Chemistry and Technology77(3), 512-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.5254/1.3547834

16 White, J. L. (1995). Rubber processing: technology, materials, and principles. Cincinnati: Hanser/Gardner Publications.

17 Nabil, H., Ismail, H., & Azura, A. R. (2014). Optimisation of accelerators and vulcanising systems on thermal stability of natural rubber/recycled ethylene–propylene–dienemonomer blends. Materials & Design53, 651-661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2013.06.078

18 Hamed, G. R., & Zhao, J. (1999). Tensile behavior after oxidative aging of gum and black-filled vulcanizates of SBR and NR. Rubber Chemistry and Technology72(4), 721-730. http://dx.doi.org/10.5254/1.3538829

19 South, J. T., Case, S. Q., & Reifsnider, K. L. (2003). Effects of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of natural rubber. Rubber Chemistry and Technology76(4), 785-802. http://dx.doi.org/10.5254/1.3547772

20 Dijkhuis, K. A. J., Noordermeer, J. W. M., & Dierkes, W. K. (2009). The relationship between crosslink system, network structure and material properties of carbon black reinforced EPDM. European Polymer Journal45(11), 3302-3312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2009.06.029

21 Oliani, W. L., Parra, D. F., & Lugão, A. B. (2010). UV stability of HMS-PP (high melt strength polypropylene) obtained by radiation process. Radiation Physics and Chemistry79(3), 383-387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2009.08.037

22 Bussière, P. O., Gardette, J. L., Lacoste, J., & Baba, M. (2005). Characterization of photodegradation of polybutadiene and polyisoprene: chronology of crosslinking and chain-scission. Polymer Degradation & Stability88(2), 182-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2004.02.013

23 Somers, A. E., Bastow, T. J., Burgar, M. I., Forsyth, M., & Hill, A. J. (2000). Quantifying rubber degradation using NMR. Polymer Degradation & Stability70(1), 31-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0141-3910(00)00076-8

5e8e167a0e882534731ad514 polimeros Articles
Links & Downloads

Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia

Share this page
Page Sections