Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
http://revistapolimeros.org.br/doi/10.1590/0104-1428.14216
Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia
Original Article

Thermal and mechanical properties of bio-based plasticizers mixtures on poly (vinyl chloride)

Bouchoul, Boussaha; Benaniba, Mohamed Tahar; Massardier, Valérie

Downloads: 0
Views: 148

Abstract

The use of mixtures of nontoxic and biodegradable plasticizers coming from natural resources is a good way to replace conventional phthalates plasticizers. In this study, two secondary plasticizers of epoxidized sunflower oil (ESO) and epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester (ESOME) were synthesized and have been used with two commercially available biobased plasticizers; isosorbide diesters (ISB) and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) in order to produce flexible PVC. Different mixtures of these plasticizers have been introduced in PVC formulations. Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties have been studied by using discoloration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), tensile - strain and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Studies have shown that PVC plasticization and stabilization were improved by addition of plasticizers blends containing ISB, ATBC, ESO and ESOME. An increase in the content of ESO or ESOME improved thermal and mechanical properties, whereas ESOME/ATBC formulations exhibited the best properties.

Keywords

PVC, epoxidized sunflower oil, epoxidized sunflower oil methyl ester, isosorbide diesters, acetyl tributyl citrate

References

1. García-Quesada, J. C., Marcilla, A., & Gilbert, M. (2001). Study of the pyrolysis behaviour of peroxide crosslinked unplasticized PVC. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 58-59, 651-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-2370(00)00195-9.

2. Zhang, K. H., Cao, W. L., Zhang, J. C. (2004) Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of PVC by Tungstophosphoric acid—a novel method for PVC plastic degradation. Applied Catalysis A: General, 276(1-2), 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2006.12.012.

3. Bhakti, M., Mukesh, K., & Jitesh, M. (2014) Bio-based coplasticizer for PVC in Addition with epoxidised soyabean oil to replace phthalates. Journal of Engineering and Technology,

3(4), 20-30. Retrieved in 10 November 2016, from http:// http://www.rroij.com/open-access/bio-based-co-plasticizer-for-pvcin-addition-with-epoxidised-soyabean-oil-to-replace-phthalates. php?aid=34499.

4. David, R. M., Moore, R. M., Finney, D. C., & Guest, D. (2000). Chronic toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in mice. Toxicological Sciences, 58(2), 377-385. PMid:11099649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/58.2.377.

5. Blystone, C. R., Kissling, G. E., Bishop, J. B., Chapin, R. E., Wolfe, G. W., & Foster, P. M. D. (2010). Determination of the Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate NOAEL for reproductive development in the rat: importance of the retention of extra animals to adulthood. Toxicological Sciences, 116(2), 640-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfq147.

6. Swan, S. H. (2008). Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans. Environmental Research, 108(2), 177-184. PMid:18949837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2008.08.007.

7. Mao, D., Chaudhary, B. I., Sun, B., Shen, C.-Y., Yuan, D., Dai, G. C., Li, B., & Cogen, J. M. (2015). Absorption and migration of bio-based epoxidized soybean oil and its mixtures with tri(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate in poly(vinylchloride). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132(19), 41966-41972. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.41966.

8. Jia, P., Bo, C., Hu, L., Zhang, M., & Zhou, Y. (2016). Synthesis of a novel polyester plasticizer based on glyceryl monooleate and its application in poly (vinyl chloride). Journal of Vinyl Additive and Technology, 22(4), 514-519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vnl.21468.

9. Bouchareb, B., & Benaniba, M. T. (2008). Effects of epoxidized sunflower oil on the mechanical and dynamical analysis of the plasticized poly (vinyl chloride). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 107(6), 3442-3450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.27458.

10. Benaniba, M. T., & Massardier-Nageotte, V. (2010). Evaluation effects of biobased plasticizer on the thermal, mechanical, dynamical mechanical properties, and permanence of plasticized PVC. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 118(6), 3499-3508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.32713.

11. Krauskopf, L. G. (1999). Prediction of plasticizer solvency using hansen solubility parameters. Journal of Vinyl Additive and Technology, 5(2), 101-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vnl.10316.

12. Martin, T. M., & Young, D. M. (2003). Correlation of the glass transition temperature of plasticized PVC using a lattice fluid model. Polymers, 44(16), 4747-4754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(03)00446-4.

13. Bouchoul, B., Benaniba, M. T., & Massardier, V. (2014). Effect of biobased plasticizers on thermal, mechanical, and Permanence Properties of Poly(vinyl chloride). Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 20(4), 260-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vnl.21356.

14. Gil, N., Saska, M. & Negulescu, I., & (2006). Evaluation of the effects of biobased plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl chloride). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 102(2), 1366-1373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.24132.

15. Meyer, P., Techaphattana, N., Manundawee, S., Sangkeaw, S., Junlakan, W., & Tongurai, C. (2008). Epoxidation of soybean oil and jatropha oil. Thammasat International Journal of Sciences and Technology, 13(Special edition), 1-5.

16. Americans Oil Chemists Society – AOCS. (1979). Sampling and analysis of commercial fats and oils: AOCS official method Cd 9.57. Urbana, IL: AOCS.

17. Holser, R. A. (2008). Transesterification of epoxidized soybean oil to prepare epoxy methyl esters. Industrial Crops and Products, 27(1), 130-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.06.001.

18. Ocskay, G., Nyitrai, Z., Várfalvi, F., & Wein, T. (1971). Investigation of degradation processes in PVC based on the concomitant colour changes. European Polymer Journal, 7(8), 1135-1145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(71)90146-7.

19. Gan, L. H., Goh, S. H., & Ooi, K. S. (1992). Kinetic studies of epoxidation and oxirane cleavage of palm olein methyl esters. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 69(4), 347-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02636065.

20. Purwanto, E. (2010). The synthesis of polyols from RBO through epoxidation and hydroxylation reactions (Master’s thesis). University of Adelaide, Adelaide.

21. Schuchardt, U., Sercheli, R., & Vargas, R. M. (1998). Transesterification of vegetable oils: a review. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 9(3), 199-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50531998000300002.

22. Nihul, P. G., Mhaske, S. T., & Shertukde, V. V. (2014). Epoxidized rice bran oil (ERBO) as a plasticizer for poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). Iranian Polymer Journal, 23(8), 599-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13726-014-0254-7.

23. Sammaiah, A., Padmaja, K. V., & Prasad, R. B. N. (2014). Synthesis of epoxy jatropha oil and its evaluation for lubricant properties. Journal of Oleo Science, 63(6), 637-643. PMid:24829128. http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess13172.

24. Waskitoaji, W., Triwulandari, E., & Haryono, A. (2012). Synthesis of plasticizers derived from palm oil and their application in polyvinyl chloride. Procedia Chemistry, 4(1), 313-321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proche.2012.06.044.

25. Sun, B., Chaudhary, B. I., Shen, C. Y., Mao, D., Yuan, D. M., Dai, G. C., Li, B., & Cogen, J. M. (2013). Thermal stability of epoxidized soybean oil and its absorption and migration in poly(vinylchloride). Polymer Engineering and Science, 53(8), 1645-1656. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pen.23417.

26. Bueno-Ferrer, C., Garrigós, M. C., & Jiménez, A. (2010). Characterization and thermal stability of poly (vinyl chloride) plasticized with epoxidized soybean oil for food packaging. Polymer Degradation & Stability, 95(11), 2207-2212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2010.01.027.

27. Gamage, P. K., Farid, A. S., & Karunanayake, L. (2009). Kinetics of degradation of PVC-containing novel neem oil as stabilizer. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 112(4), 2151-2165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.29686.

28. Joseph, R., Madhusoodhanan, K. N., Alex, R., Varghese, S., George, K. E., & Kuriakose, B. (2004). Studies on epoxidised rubber seed oil as secondary plasticiser/stabiliser for polyvinyl chloride. Plastics, Rubber and Composites, 33(5), 217-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/146580104225020974.

29. Stuart, A., Le Captain, D. J., Lee, C. Y., & Mohanty, D. K. (2013). Poly(vinyl chloride) plasticized with mixtures of succinate di-esters – synthesis and characterization. European Polymer Journal, 49(9), 2785-2791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj. 2013.06.023.

30. Cadogan, D. F. (1991). Plasticizers: a consideration of their impact on health and the environment. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 13(2), 104-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vnl.730130209.

31. Ghiou, N., & Benaniba, M. T. (2010). The effect of epoxidized sunflower oil on the miscibility of plasticized PVC/NBR blends. International Journal of Polymeric Materials, 59(7), 463-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00914031003627007.

32. Shah, B. L., & Shertukde, V. V. (2003). Effect of plasticizers on mechanical, electrical, permanence, and Thermal Properties of Poly (vinyl chloride). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 90(12), 3278-3284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.13049.

33. Chaudhary, B. I., Nguyen, B. D., Smith, P., Sunday, N., Luong, M., & Zamanskiy, A. (2015). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) succinate in mixtures with epoxidized soybean oil as bio-based plasticizers for poly(vinylchloride). Polymer Engineering and Science, 55(3), 634-640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pen.23934.

34. Fenollar, O., Garcia-Sanoguera, D., Sanchez-Nacher, L., Boronat, T., López, J., & Balart, R. (2013). Mechanical and thermal properties of polyvinyl chloride plasticized with natural fatty acid esters. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, 52(8), 761-767. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03602559.2013.763352.

35. Yu, Z., Zhou, J., Zhang, J., Huang, K., Cao, F., & Wei, P. (2014). Evaluating effects of biobased 2,5-furandicarboxylate esters as plasticizers on the thermal and mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 131(20), 40938-40948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.40938.

5b7c10f90e8825e575896e51 polimeros Articles
Links & Downloads

Polímeros: Ciência e Tecnologia

Share this page
Page Sections